Viola riviniana, the common dog-violet, is a species of the genus Viola native to Eurasia and Africa. It is also called wood violet and dog violet. It is a perennial herb of woodland edges, grassland and shady hedge banks. It is found in all soils except acid or very wet.
Viola riviniana was voted the county flower of Lincolnshire in 2002, following a poll by the wild plant conservation charity Plantlife.
This is a very variable species, both in size (wingspan 28–38 mm) and colour. The ground colour of the forewings varies from pale buff to dark or reddish brown with three narrow fascia. The area between the inner two fascia is sometimes much darker than the surrounding ground colour and is marked with stigmata, often quite indistinct. Melanic forms occasionally occur. The hindwings vary from pale cream to dingy brown. This moth flies at night from July to September and is attracted to light and sugar and sometimes to nectar-rich flowers.
The larva is green with yellow lines and black and white spots. It feeds on a variety of plants, chiefly trees and shrubs and also on the larvae of other Lepidoptera species, even occasionally its own species. The species overwinters as an egg.
The Plecoptera are an order of insects, commonly known as stoneflies. Some 3,500 species are described worldwide, with new species still being discovered. Stoneflies are found worldwide, except Antarctica. Stoneflies are believed to be one of the most primitive groups of Neoptera, with close relatives identified from the Carboniferous and Lower Permian geological periods, while true stoneflies are known from fossils only a bit younger. The modern diversity, however, apparently is of Mesozoic origin.
Plecoptera are found in both the Southern and Northern Hemispheres, and the populations are quite distinct, although the evolutionary evidence suggests species may have crossed the equator on a number of occasions before once again becoming geographically isolated.
All species of Plecoptera are intolerant of water pollution, and their presence in a stream or still water is usually an indicator of good or excellent water quality.
Stellaria species are relatively small herbs with simple opposite leaves. It produces small flowers with 5 sepals and 5 white petals each usually deeply cleft, or none at all, all free. Stamens 10 or fewer.
Some species, including Stellaria media which is widely distributed throughout the northern hemisphere, are used as leaf vegetables, often raw in salads. This is a favored food of finches and many other seed-eating birds.
Chickweeds are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Angle Shades, Heart and Dart, Riband Wave, Setaceous Hebrew Character and the Coleophora case-bearers C. coenosipennella (feeds exclusively on Stellaria spp), C. lineolea (recorded on S. graminea), C. lithargyrinella (recorded on S. holostea), C. solitariella (feeds exclusively on S. holostea) and C. striatipennella.
Several closely related plants referred to as chickweed, but which lack the culinary and medicinal properties of plants in the genus Stellaria, include members of the genus Cerastium, of similar in appearance to Stellaria and also in the (Carophyllaceae).
Muscidae are a family of flies found in the superfamily Muscoidea.
Muscidae, some of which are commonly known as house flies or stable flies due to their synanthropy, are worldwide in distribution and contain almost 4,000 described species in over 100 genera.
Most species are not synanthropic. Adults can be predatory, hematophagous, saprophagous, or feed on a number of types of plant and animal exudates. They can be attracted to various substances including sugar, sweat, tears and blood. Larvae occur in various habitats including decaying vegetation, dry and wet soil, nests of insects and birds, fresh water, and carrion.
The housefly, Musca domestica, is the best known and most important species.