21st September 2012: Common spangle galls (Neuroterus quercusbaccarum) and silk button spangle galls (Neuroterus numismalis) on the underside of an oak leaf. These galls are induced by the asexual generation of gall wasps.
19th September 2012: Common spangle galls on the underside of an oak leaf. These are fertilised eggs, which are laid by the female gall wasp Neuroterus quercusbaccarum in June. One leaf can have up to 100 of these galls, each containing a single developing larvae.